Headline

Data composition in Haskell with algebraic data types

Characteristics

The data model leverages data composition for companies with departmental nesting. Thus, an algebraic data type is used for departments so that recursive nesting can be expressed. The algebraic data type only needs a single data constructor. Thus, data variation is not exercised, but see Contribution:haskellVariation for an alternative with data variation.

Illustration

The data model leverages an algebraic data type for departments; in this manner recursion is enabled:

{-| A data model for the 101companies System -}

module Company.Data where

-- | A company consists of name and top-level departments
type Company = (Name, [Department])

-- | A department consists of name, manager, sub-departments, and employees
data Department = Department Name Manager [Department] [Employee]
 deriving (Eq, Read, Show)

-- | An employee consists of name, address, and salary
type Employee = (Name, Address, Salary)

-- | Managers as employees
type Manager = Employee

-- | Names of companies, departments, and employees
type Name = String

-- | Addresses as strings
type Address = String

-- | Salaries as floats
type Salary = Float

A sample company looks like this:

{- | Sample data of the 101companies System -}

module Company.Sample where

import Company.Data

-- | A sample company useful for basic tests
sampleCompany :: Company
sampleCompany =
  ( "Acme Corporation",
    [
      Department "Research"
        ("Craig", "Redmond", 123456)
        []
        [
          ("Erik", "Utrecht", 12345),
          ("Ralf", "Koblenz", 1234)
        ],
      Department "Development"
        ("Ray", "Redmond", 234567)
        [
          Department "Dev1"
            ("Klaus", "Boston", 23456)
            [
              Department "Dev1.1"
                ("Karl", "Riga", 2345)
                []
                [("Joe", "Wifi City", 2344)]
            ]
            []
        ]
        []
    ]
  )

Feature:Total is implemented as follows:

{-| The operation of totaling all salaries of all employees in a company -}

module Company.Total where

import Company.Data

-- | Total all salaries in a company
total :: Company -> Float
total (_, ds) = totalDepartments ds
  where

    -- Total salaries in a list of departments
    totalDepartments :: [Department] -> Float
    totalDepartments [] = 0
    totalDepartments (Department _ m ds es : ds')
        = getSalary m
        + totalDepartments ds
        + totalEmployees es
        + totalDepartments ds'
      where

        -- Total salaries in a list of employees
        totalEmployees :: [Employee] -> Float
        totalEmployees [] = 0
        totalEmployees (e:es)
          = getSalary e
          + totalEmployees es 

        -- Extract the salary from an employee
        getSalary :: Employee -> Salary
        getSalary (_, _, s) = s

The following salary total is computed for the sample company:

399747.0

Relationships

Architecture

There are these modules:

{-| A data model for the 101companies System -}

module Company.Data where

-- | A company consists of name and top-level departments
type Company = (Name, [Department])

-- | A department consists of name, manager, sub-departments, and employees
data Department = Department Name Manager [Department] [Employee]
 deriving (Eq, Read, Show)

-- | An employee consists of name, address, and salary
type Employee = (Name, Address, Salary)

-- | Managers as employees
type Manager = Employee

-- | Names of companies, departments, and employees
type Name = String

-- | Addresses as strings
type Address = String

-- | Salaries as floats
type Salary = Float
: a data model for Feature:Hierarchical company
{- | Sample data of the 101companies System -}

module Company.Sample where

import Company.Data

-- | A sample company useful for basic tests
sampleCompany :: Company
sampleCompany =
  ( "Acme Corporation",
    [
      Department "Research"
        ("Craig", "Redmond", 123456)
        []
        [
          ("Erik", "Utrecht", 12345),
          ("Ralf", "Koblenz", 1234)
        ],
      Department "Development"
        ("Ray", "Redmond", 234567)
        [
          Department "Dev1"
            ("Klaus", "Boston", 23456)
            [
              Department "Dev1.1"
                ("Karl", "Riga", 2345)
                []
                [("Joe", "Wifi City", 2344)]
            ]
            []
        ]
        []
    ]
  )
: a sample company
{-| The operation of totaling all salaries of all employees in a company -}

module Company.Total where

import Company.Data

-- | Total all salaries in a company
total :: Company -> Float
total (_, ds) = totalDepartments ds
  where

    -- Total salaries in a list of departments
    totalDepartments :: [Department] -> Float
    totalDepartments [] = 0
    totalDepartments (Department _ m ds es : ds')
        = getSalary m
        + totalDepartments ds
        + totalEmployees es
        + totalDepartments ds'
      where

        -- Total salaries in a list of employees
        totalEmployees :: [Employee] -> Float
        totalEmployees [] = 0
        totalEmployees (e:es)
          = getSalary e
          + totalEmployees es 

        -- Extract the salary from an employee
        getSalary :: Employee -> Salary
        getSalary (_, _, s) = s
: the implementation of Feature:Total
{-| The operation of cutting all salaries of all employees in a company in half -}

module Company.Cut where

import Company.Data

-- | Cut all salaries in a company
cut :: Company -> Company
cut (n, ds) = (n, (map cutD ds))
  where
    -- Cut all salaries in a department
    cutD :: Department -> Department
    cutD (Department n m ds es)
      = Department n (cutE m) (map cutD ds) (map cutE es)
      where
        -- Cut the salary of an employee in half
        cutE :: Employee -> Employee
        cutE (n, a, s) = (n, a, s/2)
: the implementation of Feature:Cut
{-| Tests for the 101companies System -}

module Main where

import Company.Data
import Company.Sample
import Company.Total
import Company.Cut
import Test.HUnit
import System.Exit

-- | Compare salary total of sample company with baseline
totalTest = 399747.0 ~=? total sampleCompany

-- | Compare total after cut of sample company with baseline
cutTest = total sampleCompany / 2 ~=? total (cut sampleCompany)

-- | Test for round-tripping of de-/serialization of sample company
serializationTest = sampleCompany ~=? read (show sampleCompany)

-- | The list of tests
tests =
  TestList [
    TestLabel "total" totalTest,
    TestLabel "cut" cutTest,
    TestLabel "serialization" serializationTest
  ]

-- | Run all tests and communicate through exit code
main = do
 counts <- runTestTT tests
 if (errors counts > 0 || failures counts > 0)
   then exitFailure
   else exitSuccess
: Tests The types of
{-| A data model for the 101companies System -}

module Company.Data where

-- | A company consists of name and top-level departments
type Company = (Name, [Department])

-- | A department consists of name, manager, sub-departments, and employees
data Department = Department Name Manager [Department] [Employee]
 deriving (Eq, Read, Show)

-- | An employee consists of name, address, and salary
type Employee = (Name, Address, Salary)

-- | Managers as employees
type Manager = Employee

-- | Names of companies, departments, and employees
type Name = String

-- | Addresses as strings
type Address = String

-- | Salaries as floats
type Salary = Float
implement Feature:Closed serialization through Haskell's read/show.

Usage

See https://github.com/101companies/101haskell/blob/master/README.md.

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Kevin edited this article at Fri, 05 May 2017 20:32:40 +0200
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