Illustration

. A simple implementation of stacks (of ints) is shown here as a functional data structure in Language:Haskell:.

These stacks are immutable. The push operation does not modify the given stack; it returns a new stack which shares the argument stack possibly with other parts of the program. The pop operation does not modify the given stack; it returns a part of the argument stack. We refer to Document:Handbook of data structures and applications for a profound discussion of functional data structures including the stack example. The functions for operations top and pop, as given above, are partial because they are undefined for the empty stack.

There are also alternative illustrative Stack implementations available:

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    : Stacks are represented as lists while the Stack type is simply defined as a type synonym to this end. This implementation does not enforce information hiding.
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    : As before, stacks are represented as lists, but the Stack type is defined as a newtype which hides the representation as its constructor is not exported.
  • Fragment not found
    : As before, stacks are represented as lists and again this representation is hidden, but an additional data component for the size of the stack is maintained so that the size of a stack can be returned without traversing the stack.

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